When we use pipelines to transport medium, if there is liquid water in the medium, it will accelerate the corrosion of the pipeline; if there are solid impurities in the medium, it will cause blockage of pipelines and equipment. Impurities in these media will not only reduce the transmission efficiency of the pipeline, damage the life of the equipment, but also cause safety accidents in severe cases.
The appearance of the separator has solved the problem very well. The separator can remove the suspended solid and liquid impurities in the medium, reduce the transportation load of pipelines and equipment, reduce the occurrence of corrosion and blockage, and ensure the safe and reliable operation of pipelines and equipment. Of course, there are also some separators dedicated to separating difficult-to-separate materials. Let’s take a look!
What types of separators are there?
1. Classification by function
Metering separator: It mainly completes the preliminary separation and metering of oil, gas and water, and is generally a low-pressure separator.
Production separator: It mainly completes multiple production wells for initial separation and then closed transportation. It is a medium and high pressure separator.
2.Classification by working principle
Gravity Separator: Separation is achieved by utilizing the difference in gravity due to the difference in density of liquid, gas and solid.
Cyclone Separator: Separation is achieved by utilizing the different centrifugal forces that liquids, gases and solids experience when they rotate.
Filter Separator: Separation is achieved using filter elements or media on the airflow channel.
3.Classification by work pressure
Vacuum separator: <0.1MPa
Low pressure separator: <1.5MPa
Medium pressure separator: 1.5~6MPa
High pressure separator: >6MPa
Gravity separators can be divided into two-phase separation (gas-liquid separation) and three-phase separation (oil-gas-water separation) according to their functions. According to the shape, it can be divided into vertical separator, horizontal separator and spherical separator.
Horizontal two-phase separator
Separation principle: The gas-liquid mixed fluid enters the separator through the gas-liquid inlet for basic phase separation, the gas enters the gas channel for gravity sedimentation to separate droplets, the liquid enters the liquid space to separate bubbles and solid impurities, and the gas is captured before leaving the separator. After the atomizer removes small droplets, it flows out from the air outlet, and the liquid flows out from the liquid outlet.
Vertical two-phase separator
General horizontal three-phase separator
Separation principle: The gas-liquid mixed fluid enters the separator through the gas-liquid inlet for basic phase separation, the gas enters the gas channel through rectification and gravity sedimentation, and separates the droplets; the liquid enters the liquid space to separate the bubbles, and at the same time, under the condition of gravity, the oil moves upward. Flow, water flows downward to separate oil and water, gas is removed from the mist collector before leaving the separator, and then flows out from the gas outlet, the oil enters the oil tank from the top through the overflow partition and flows out from the oil outlet, and the water flows from the drain Mouth out.
Horizontal three-phase separator
Vertical three-phase separator
There are many types of gravity separators, but the basic structure is basically the same. Take the vertical two-phase separator as an example. It is composed of shell, gas-water mixing inlet, umbrella cap, outlet, sewage outlet, water bag, liquid level gauge, partition separation, etc. At the same time, in order to make the separator operate safely during the production process, the upper part is equipped with a safety valve.
Four stages of separation
Primary separation section: At the air inlet, after the air enters the cylinder, the liquid or large droplets in strands are separated due to the action of gravity and settle directly into the liquid accumulation section due to the sudden decrease of the air velocity. In order to improve the effect of primary separation , and often add an inlet near-water baffle at the gas-liquid inlet or use a tangential inlet method.
Secondary separation section: sedimentation section, the air flow after primary separation carries smaller droplets and flows upward at a lower flow rate to the air flow outlet. At this time, due to the action of gravity, the droplets settle down and separate from the airflow.
Demisting section: It is mainly set in front of the gas outflow outlet to capture the smaller droplets (10-100um) that cannot be separated in the settling section. Here, tiny droplets collide, condense, and finally combine into larger droplets and sink to the liquid accumulation section.
Fluid collection section: mainly collects fluid. Generally, the liquid accumulation section should have enough volume to ensure that the gas dissolved in the liquid can be separated from the liquid and enter the gas phase. The liquid discharge control system of the separator is also the main content of the liquid accumulation section. In order to prevent the gas vortex during liquid discharge, in addition to retaining a section of liquid seal, a baffle-type vortex breaking device is often installed above the liquid discharge port.
Belongs to the centrifugal separator. The main function of the equipment is to remove the solid particles, impurities and liquid droplets carried in the conveying medium gas as much as possible to achieve gas-solid-liquid separation to ensure the normal operation of pipelines and equipment.
Separation principle: The gas enters the separator in a tangential direction and then moves in a circular motion. The droplets are thrown on the wall of the container due to the heavy centrifugal force and are finally separated from the gas; the gas rotation speed gradually decreases and finally moves upward. The liquid flows from the top and the liquid flows from the bottom.
It is one of the decanter centrifuges and is used to separate difficult-to-separate materials (such as suspensions composed of viscous liquids and fine solid particles or emulsions composed of liquids with similar densities, etc.). The disc separator in the separator is the most widely used decanter centrifuge.
Separation principle: The motor drives the drum to rotate at a high speed around the main axis through thermal coupling. The material and liquid flow from the upper central feed pipe to the bottom of the drum, and go to the drum wall through the shunt hole on the lower seat surface of the disc. Under the action of the centrifugal force field , the solid phase heavier than the liquid sinks to the inner wall of the drum to form a sediment, and the light liquid is centrifugally pumped and discharged from the light liquid outlet. The heavy liquid tends to the drum wall along the inner cone surface of the disc, and then flows upward through the heavy liquid centripetal pump and is discharged from the heavy liquid outlet, thereby completing the separation of the heavy liquid and the light liquid.
The filter separator is mainly used in oil and gs production to remove suspended solid and liquid impurities in oil and gas.
Separation principle: the gas enters through the upper part and enters the secondary separation through the filter tube, while the larger droplets and dust remain in the primary separation section of the separator and enter the liquid storage tank. side flow.
Post time: Aug-15-2022